Home ] Up ] Peace Plans ] KLA Political Declaration ] Srebrenica ] Chinese Embassy Bombing ] New Age of Humanitarian Vigilante Power ] Serbia ] [ Montenegro ] Accusations of Rape ] Pre 1989,  Albanian Rule in Kosovo ] Lynching Justice ] Reasons for NATO Aggression ] Purpose Behind Intervention ] March 1994 ] Albanian Rule in Kosovo ] Manoevers Focused on Mounting Chaos ] Theory of American Stupidity ] Theory of European Stupidity ] The Empire ] Failure of Diplomacy ]


europeS.jpg (4853 bytes)
US troops out of Europe!
Peace Plans
KLA Political Declaration
Chinese Embassy Bombing
New Age of Humanitarian Vigilante Power
Accusations of Rape
Pre 1989,  Albanian Rule in Kosovo
Lynching Justice
Reasons for NATO Aggression
Purpose Behind Intervention
March 1994
Albanian Rule in Kosovo
Manoevers Focused on Mounting Chaos
Theory of American Stupidity
Theory of European Stupidity
The Empire
Failure of Diplomacy


Highly recommended articles:
+ This is the News
+ Bar Too High For Serbs to Comply
+ Why New World Order Hates Serbs
+ New Roman Empire

+A Truly Heroic Resistance
+Theory of American Stupidity
+Last Free People in Europe

TVonFire2_small.jpg (2904 bytes)
of the Belgrade Coup

Editor & Webmaster
Leon Chame - 2008

Yugoslav Associates:
- Zoran Radojicic
- Dejan Vukelic
- George Orwell

Contributing Websites:
- Original Sorces
- Transnational (TFF)
- Fair sources


avgust 20, 2008

















GrbCrneGore.gif (40484 bytes)

How the Montenegrin State and Kingdom Was Abolished in 1918

In World War I, Montenegro fought valiantly alongside the allied armies. At that time, King Nikola I Petrovic of Montenegro became increasingly surrounded by advisors and politicians who were plotting the subsequent annexation of Montenegro by Serbia. In a gesture of trust in his Serbian ally, uncharacteristic of his otherwise savvy statesmanship, Nikola made a crucial error in putting much of the Montenegrin army under the Serbian army's high command. This later precipitated large losses of Montenegrin lives. It also contributed to Montenegro's defeat and occupation by Austria, and the subsequent annexation by Serbia.

In 1915, the Montenegrin army won a major battle against the Austrian army at Mojkovac, albeit at an enormous cost of 6000 lives. In this and previous battles of World War I, the Montenegrin army played a crucial role in securing the retreat of the Serbian army to the ports of northern Albania, from where it was transported by boats to the Greek island of Corfu. While the Serbian army and King Karadjordjevic withdrew to Corfu, Montenegro was occupied by Austria. At that point Nikola realized the tragic mistake of not withdrawing his army to Allied territory as had the Serbian King Petar. King Nikola, his family, and several members of the Government fled to Italy, where King Nikola's daughter Elena was Queen.

In 1918, the Serbian king Petar Karadjordjevic, a son-in-law of King Nikola, exploited the chaotic conditions following the end of World War I and his army occupied Montenegro. The Montenegrins initially welcomed the Serbian troops, their allies during the war, in naive anticipation of the reinstatement of their own Montenegrin Government and a larger confederation of south Slavic states -- the first Yugoslavia -- that was in the making. But as the Serbian army's conduct as an occupying force became clear, the enthusiasm quickly turned to revolt.

The Montenegrin revolt culminated in a full-fledged war with Serbian troops after the Serbian-sponsored abolishment of the kingdom of Montenegro and Montenegro's annexation to Serbia. In 1920, the Montenegrin Autocephalous Orthodox Church was abolished in an uncanonical and illegal manner and its property transferred to the Serbian Orthodox Church.

Before the annexation, the political forces in Montenegro favored only a loose confederation with other South Slavic countries, but with full preservation of the Montenegrin national state.

Following the occupation by Serbian troops, the Montenegrin kingdom was abolished and annexed to Serbia and King Nikola was banned from returning to Montenegro. All symbols of Montenegrin sovereignty were forbidden. The Serbian authority in Montenegro, set up in 1918, organized a police-controlled, unconstitutional "Grand National Assembly" (Podgoricka skupstina) that proclaimed the "annexation (prisajedinjenje) of Montenegro to Serbia". These decisions were illegal and in violation of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Montenegro, which was still valid and in effect. Thus Montenegro became the only Allied country in World War I to be annexed to another country after the end of the war. Moreover, following annexation, Montenegro lost its official name and was included in a region of Yugoslavia called Zeta.

The forced annexation of Montenegro by Serbia proceeded despite President Woodrow Wilson's support for Montenegrin independence in his address to Congress of January 8, 1918.

The majority of the Montenegrin population opposed the annexation. As a result, two weeks later, on Orthodox Christmas, January 7, 1919, Montenegrins staged a national uprising -- the Christmas Uprising -- against the Serbian annexation